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Compassionate Interventions
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, transformation is a possible justification that use of a copyrighted work may qualify as fair use , i.e., that a certain use of a work does not infringe its holder's copyright due to the public interest in the usage. Transformation is an important issue in deciding whether a use meets the first factor of the fair-use test, and is generally critical for determining whether a use is in fact fair, although no one factor is dispositive.

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the term also refers to the test set in In re Bilski : that a patent -eligible invention must “transform a particular article into a different state or thing.”

Contents

Like most of the modern fair use doctrine, the doctrine of transformation was heavily influenced by the 1841 circuit court case Folsom v. Marsh . In that case, Justice Story ruled that

if [someone] thus cites the most important parts of the work, with a view, not to criticize, but to supersede the use of the original work, and substitute the review for it, such a use will be deemed in law a piracy.

The standard of "supersed[ing] the use of the original work" would be widely cited as a standard for the degree to which a work was transformative when fair use had become more clearly fixed as a legal principle.

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, Congress defined fair use explicitly for the first time, giving as one factor "the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes". This factor was later determined to hinge in substantial part on transformation. See, e.g., Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music , a case in the United States Supreme Court :

Under the first of the four 107 factors, "the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature ...," the inquiry focuses on whether the new work merely supersedes the objects of the original creation, or whether and to what extent it is controversially "transformative," altering the original with new expression, meaning, or message. The more transformative the new work, the less will be the significance of other factors, like commercialism, that may weigh against a finding of fair use.

Campbell is important in large part because of this statement, ordering that commerciality should be given less weight in fair-use determinations and transformation great weight.

In the combined cohort, there were 31 (9.5%) cardiovascular deaths during follow-up of 326 patients (12 patients, 3.6% were no longer available). In the discovery phase sample, analysis of variance contrasting 23 individuals experiencing cardiovascular death during follow-up with the remaining survivors revealed 244 probes in 238 genes that were significantly differentially expressed at P  < 0.01. The first PC of these probes explains 23.3% of their variance in the joint sample of 338 individuals.

Figure 4

Gene expression predictor of incident cardiovascular death. (A) Two-way hierarchical plot of normalized transcript abundance (columns) by subjects (rows), highlighting the three deepest clusters. The column to the left illustrate subjects with cardiovascular death during follow-up: note the over-representation in the blue cluster and under-representation in the red one. (B) ROC for the sensitivity of PC1 of the 238 probe (230 gene) signature of cardiovascular death in the joint analysis. (C) Projection of hierarchical clusters on first two PCs. (D) Kaplan-Meier survival curve contrasting individuals in the bottom 29% of PC1 (blue curve; PC1 < -3.5), which includes 97 subjects (all 51 of the blue cluster and 46 of the orange cluster), and the remaining 71% (red curve; n = 240, PC1 > -3.5).

The best cutoff for the transcriptional PC1 score of the 238 differentially expressed genes in predicting cardiovascular death was determined to be -3.5 non-dimensional units using Youden’s index [ buy cheap with credit card get authentic online Hogan lace up brogue sneakernews online outlet shop VcajF
]. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrates a highly significant difference in survival between the 97 individuals with a PC1 score below -3.5 and the remaining 71% of subjects with PC1 score above -3.5 ( P  = <10 -7 ; Figure Raf Simons adidas Originals Stan Smith Leather Sneakers with mastercard cheap price hot sale online discount 2014 unisex under cheap price big discount online 7NgUS4Al
D).

Table 2

Univariate and multivariate predictors of cardiovascular death

Significant predictors are highlighted in bold. body mass index, hazard ratio, low-density lipoprotein, left ventricular ejection fraction.

Additional file 8 lists the genes that are present in the signature. Diverse functions are represented, notably several genes involved in gylcerophospholipid metabolism and sphingomyelin-mediated signaling ( PRKCH ), thrombosis ( CD59 ), leukocyte recruitment ( CD63 ), splicing, and PI3K-Akt signaling, also with a highly significant enrichment for 18 genes known to be upregulated in CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells. Since half of these transcripts are positively and half negatively associated with PC1, it is unlikely that they simply report progenitor cell activity.

Figure 5

Volcano plots contrasting differential expression with respect to CAD status, AMI, or incident cardiovascular death. Data were transformed by the SNM procedure (see Additional file 9 for similar analysis of standard normalized data). (A) Cardiovascular death versus survivors in the discovery phase, where shaded points indicate transcripts that are differentially expressed at NLP >2.7 (5% FDR). (B) Replication of cardiovascular death direction of effect in the replication phase. (C) No CAD versus CAD, showing absence of overlap with AMI or cardiovascular death in direction of effects. (D) AMI versus no-AMI in the discovery phase, showing similarity of direction of differential expression relative to (A) . (E) Cardiovascular death versus survivors; same as (A) but after removing all individuals who were experiencing an AMI. (F) Individuals who experienced an AMI after enrolment versus not at all, also showing the cardiac death signature is in the same direction for predicting heart attack in general.

Ethnicity and BMI contribute to differences in transcript abundance (Additional file 1 ) as observed in our other cohorts [ Giuseppe Zanotti Design Gail sneakers with credit card online outlet supply free shipping get authentic 7fBGZ2sUT
, 19 ]. We also assessed whether cardiovascular medications are associated with gene expression. One-way ANOVA on statins, angiotensin antagonists, beta blockers, clopidogrel, or aspirin usage did not demonstrate noteworthy drug-specific enrichment for gene expression. In either phase, we did observe significant association between axis scores and usage of clopidogrel or beta blockers, but these effects did not replicate in both phases (Table Ecoalf thong flip flops outlet store cheap online discounts sale online largest supplier sale online HUX4tFg4fz
).

Several recent studies have investigated how engineers spend their time; that is, the work tasks they perform and how their time is distributed among these. Research Mens Skechers Pelmo 64869 Hiking Boots where can i order lgY5YP
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suggests that there are several key themes present in engineers’ work: (1) technical work (i.e., the application of science to product development); (2) social work (i.e., interactive communication between people); (3) computer-based work; (4) information behaviours. Amongst other more detailed findings, a recent work sampling study Adieu Paris classic brogues outlet pre order sale 2014 newest discount new cheap 2015 sale real GzDASQV6rg
found that engineers spend 62.92% of their time engaged in technical work, 40.37% in social work, and 49.66% in computer-based work. Furthermore, there was considerable overlap between these different types of work, with engineers spending 24.96% of their time engaged in technical and social work, 37.97% in technical and non-social, 15.42% in non-technical and social, and 21.66% in non-technical and non-social.

Engineering is also an information-intensive field, with research finding that engineers spend 55.8% of their time engaged in various different information behaviours, including 14.2% actively seeking information from other people (7.8%) and information repositories such as documents and databases (6.4%). buy cheap footaction outlet lowest price Christopher Kane crystal Crocs sale great deals cheap order NnVUbVH0

The time engineers spend engaged in such activities is also reflected in the competencies required in engineering roles. In addition to engineers’ core technical competence, research has also demonstrated the critical nature of their personal attributes, project management skills, and cognitive abilities to success in the role. [15]

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There are many branches of engineering, each of which specializes in specific technologies and products. Typically engineers will have deep knowledge in one area and basic knowledge in related areas. For example, mechanical engineering curricula typically includes introductory courses in electrical engineering, computer science, materials science, metallurgy, mathematics, and software engineering.

When developing a product, engineers typically work in interdisciplinary teams. For example, when building robots an engineering team will typically have at least three types of engineers. A mechanical engineer would design the body and actuators. An electrical engineer would design the power systems, sensors, electronics, embedded software in electronics, and control circuitry. Finally, a software engineer would develop the software that makes the robot behave properly. Engineers that aspire to management engage in further study in business administration, project management and organizational or business psychology. Often engineers move up the management hierarchy from managing projects, functional departments, divisions and eventually CEO's of a multi-national corporation.

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